The India / Pakistan / Bangladesh Plume

Seasonality: The anthropogenic Indian/Pakistan/Bangladesh Plume (IPBP) exists in the boreal summer from May to September each year at levels of intensity. Remnants of the plume can be seen in the Ganges Valley all the year.

Sources Anthropogenic: The IPBP is nearly exclusively derived from biomass burning linked to land clearing and agriculture plus a few gas flares in the oil production industry identified by the World Bank Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership and NOAA. Domestic fires and transport also contribute to the plume.

Sources Natural: ??

Trajectory: The IPBP is constrained by the high Himalayas to the north and typically exits to the south towards the Indian Ocean and west towards Africa.

Most Extreme: